Umbrella is a shield of protection and not s system of safety.
This new approach to manage organizational factors, human factors, supervision factors and environmental factors was looked upon as an additional layer of safety to what the aviation industry already was doing. However, the aviation industry had not been doing anything else but to comply with regulatory and standards requirements. When the SMS program was presented as an additional layer of safety, everyone assumed that by complying with this highest level of layer of a hierarchy all other regulations and standards would take care of themselves. It had become an assumption that they were self-regulated by the Safety Management System.
While the assumption of being self-regulated is a misconception of the SMS, both the operators SMS and the aviation authority oversight system is a part of a complete package. The concept of an SMS is that the operator has processes in place for the safe operations of an aircraft or airport and processes in place to ensure regulatory compliance. When there is an audit by the aviation authority the ideal outcome is that there are zero findings, or an operational zero tolerance to compromise aviation safety.
An SMS is a formal means for operators to demonstrate their management capability to meet their obligation to operate at the highest level of safety in the public interest. While both oversight systems and are highly complementary and interactive, they are both separate and essential components of the regulatory safety management strategy. In other words, SMS is a parallel system and supporting system to the operations.
SMS is to strengthen each spoke of the wheel.
On the other side, when the SMS system is looked at as a parallel system to operations and as a tool of a wheel with spokes it becomes manageable and practical in the application of safety. As a parallel system and a wheel of with spokes, the operator may choose to strengthen the wheel by applying more powers to one or the other spokes. SMS is not an overarching operational umbrella system. SMS is a system that is receiving data from operational practices and applying this data to each one of the spokes in the wheel to strengthen the wheel and operational confidence level of safety management.